Previously, questions in Microsoft exams were about the features of the Microsoft product that a given exam covers. This often meant that you had to learn about functionalities or capabilities that you never used, and would never use, just to pass the exam.
Microsoft has changed to certifications that revolve around the day-to-day tasks of certain job roles. Microsoft consulted widely to define several job roles and the certifications around those roles across the following core solutions areas: Cloud, Modern Workplace, Data and AI, and Business Applications.
You can see the full list of job roles at http://aka.ms/TrainCertPoster.
There are certifications for each role, with each role certification requiring one or, sometimes, two exams.
Questions in the role-based exams are written to test your day-to-day skills instead of testing your memory.