Components in standby sparing systems, particularly in cold and warm standby sparing systems, exhibit dynamic failure behaviors. In this chapter, four different methods were presented to address these dynamic component failure behaviors in system reliability modeling and analysis, including the CTMC‐based method, the SBDD‐based method, the approximation method based on the CLT, and the event transition‐based method. The methods presented assume the standby sparing system has a perfect switching mechanism. Refer to  for an extension of the event transition method for addressing imperfect fault detection and switching mechanisms.
Monte Carlo simulations , Bayesian networks , and universal generating function‐based techniques  have also been proposed for the reliability analysis of standby sparing systems. Interested readers may refer to the relevant references for details of these methods.