3.2 ELC Modeling
In the seminal paper by Bouricius et al. , a fault coverage factor in ELC was defined as the conditional probability that a system can recover its function successfully given that a component fault has occurred. It measures a system's capability to perform fault detection, location, containment, and/or recovery when a component fault occurs in the system.
This section describes the imperfect coverage model (IPCM) introduced by Dugan and Trivedi, as illustrated in Figure 3.1 . The subsequent sections present the incorporation of IPCM in reliability analysis of different types of systems including binary‐state systems, multi‐state systems, and multi‐phase systems.
The IPCM is associated with a particular system component i and has a single entry point representing the occurrence of the component fault. The model also has three disjoint exits R, C, S, representing all the possible outcomes...