3.3 Binary‐State System
This section presents an explicit method, referred to as BDD expansion method (Section 3.3.1), and an implicit method named simple and efficient algorithm (SEA) (Section 3.3.2) for reliability analysis of binary‐state systems considering effects of ELC modeled using the IPCM.
3.3.1 BDD Expansion Method
The BDD expansion method (BEM) addresses effects of ELC by explicitly inserting the IPCM in the path for components experiencing uncovered faults during traversal of the system BDD model (Section 2.4) . Figure 3.2 illustrates the idea, where when node i can experience an uncovered fault and is traversed, the IPCM is inserted on the path led by the right branch (1‐edge) of node i. Both the original left branch (representing no fault occurring) and the exit R from the IPCM point to NFi; the exit C points to Fi; the exit S points to sink node 1 directly since an uncovered component fault leads to the failure of the entire system.