In some cases, we may store output from one command in a file, with the intent to use it in the input to another. Consider this script, which accepts a list of ASCII words on its standard input, converts any uppercase letters to lowercase with tr, sorts them, and then prints a count of how often each word is used, sorted by frequency:
# Convert all capital letters in the input to lowercase tr A-Z a-z > words.lowercase
# Sort all the lowercase words in order sort words.lowercase > words.sorted
# Print counts of how many times each word occurs uniq -c words.sorted > words.frequency
# Sort that list by frequency, descending sort -k1,1nr words.frequency
This sort of script involving many commands in sequence to filter and aggregate data can be very useful for analyzing large amounts of raw text, such as log files. However, there's a problem; when...