## Calculating vertically

One of the most powerful features in QlikView is the ability to create vertical calculations in charts. We normally calculate values horizontally, where all values are in reference to the dimensions in the chart. It is a very important feature for us to also make vertical calculations across those horizontal numbers. For example, we might want to know what the total of all our calculations is so that we can calculate a ratio.

We might want to know the average, or the standard deviation, to draw a line in a chart. We might want to accumulate just the last four results to calculate a rolling average.

### Using inter-record and range functions

There are several functions that allow us to compare between different records in a chart. Some work in all charts, but others are specific to a particular chart type, such as a pivot table. In the graphical charts (Bar, Pie, and so on), we should imagine their Straight Table equivalent to understand how these functions will work.

The main...