Book Image

Python Machine Learning

By : Sebastian Raschka
Book Image

Python Machine Learning

By: Sebastian Raschka

Overview of this book

Machine learning and predictive analytics are transforming the way businesses and other organizations operate. Being able to understand trends and patterns in complex data is critical to success, becoming one of the key strategies for unlocking growth in a challenging contemporary marketplace. Python can help you deliver key insights into your data – its unique capabilities as a language let you build sophisticated algorithms and statistical models that can reveal new perspectives and answer key questions that are vital for success. Python Machine Learning gives you access to the world of predictive analytics and demonstrates why Python is one of the world’s leading data science languages. If you want to ask better questions of data, or need to improve and extend the capabilities of your machine learning systems, this practical data science book is invaluable. Covering a wide range of powerful Python libraries, including scikit-learn, Theano, and Keras, and featuring guidance and tips on everything from sentiment analysis to neural networks, you’ll soon be able to answer some of the most important questions facing you and your organization.
Table of Contents (21 chapters)
Python Machine Learning
About the Author
About the Reviewers

Training an artificial neural network

Now that we have seen a neural network in action and have gained a basic understanding of how it works by looking over the code, let's dig a little bit deeper into some of the concepts, such as the logistic cost function and the backpropagation algorithm that we implemented to learn the weights.

Computing the logistic cost function

The logistic cost function that we implemented as the _get_cost method is actually pretty simple to follow since it is the same cost function that we described in the logistic regression section in Chapter 3, A Tour of Machine Learning Classifiers Using Scikit-learn.

Here, is the sigmoid activation of the th unit in one of the layers which we compute in the forward propagation step:

Now, let's add a regularization term, which allows us to reduce the degree of overfitting. As you will recall from earlier chapters, the L2 and L1 regularization terms are defined as follows (remember that we don't regularize the bias units):