Book Image

Mastering Hadoop

By : Sandeep Karanth
Book Image

Mastering Hadoop

By: Sandeep Karanth

Overview of this book

Table of Contents (21 chapters)
Mastering Hadoop
About the Author
About the Reviewers

Hadoop's "small files" problem

Hadoop's problem with small files—files that are significantly smaller than the HDFS block size—is well known. When dealing with small files as input, a Map task is created for each of these files introducing bookkeeping overheads. The same Map task is able to finish processing in a matter of a few seconds, a processing time much smaller than the time taken to spawn and cleanup the task. Each object in the NameNode occupies about 150 bytes of memory. Many small files will proliferate in the presence of these objects and adversely affect NameNode's performance and scalability. Reading a set of smaller files is also very inefficient because of the large number of disk seeks and hops across DataNodes to fetch them.

Unfortunately, small files are a reality, but there are the following strategies to handle small files:

  • Combining smaller files into a bigger file as a preprocessing step before storing it in HDFS and running the job. SequenceFile and TFile formats are...