#### Overview of this book

This cookbook offers a range of data analysis samples in simple and straightforward R code, providing step-by-step resources and time-saving methods to help you solve data problems efficiently. The first section deals with how to create R functions to avoid the unnecessary duplication of code. You will learn how to prepare, process, and perform sophisticated ETL for heterogeneous data sources with R packages. An example of data manipulation is provided, illustrating how to use the “dplyr” and “data.table” packages to efficiently process larger data structures. We also focus on “ggplot2” and show you how to create advanced figures for data exploration. In addition, you will learn how to build an interactive report using the “ggvis” package. Later chapters offer insight into time series analysis on financial data, while there is detailed information on the hot topic of machine learning, including data classification, regression, clustering, association rule mining, and dimension reduction. By the end of this book, you will understand how to resolve issues and will be able to comfortably offer solutions to problems encountered while performing data analysis.
R for Data Science Cookbook
Credits
www.PacktPub.com
Preface
Free Chapter
Functions in R
Data Preprocessing and Preparation
Visualizing Data with ggplot2
Making Interactive Reports
Simulation from Probability Distributions
Statistical Inference in R
Time Series Mining with R
Index

## Mining frequent sequential patterns with cSPADE

One of the most famous frequent sequential pattern mining algorithms is the SPADE (Sequential PAttern Discovery using Equivalence classes) algorithm, which employs characteristics of the vertical database to perform intersection on ID-list with efficient lattice search and allows us to place constraints on mined sequences. In this recipe, we will demonstrate how to use cSPADE to mine frequent sequential patterns.

In this recipe, one has to have completed the previous recipe by generating transactions with temporal information and have it stored in a variable named `traffic.tran`.
1. First, use the `cspade` function to generate frequent sequential patterns:
```> frequent_pattern <-cspade(traffic.tran,parameter = list(support = 0.50))