#### Overview of this book

Frequently the tool of choice for academics, R has spread deep into the private sector and can be found in the production pipelines at some of the most advanced and successful enterprises. The power and domain-specificity of R allows the user to express complex analytics easily, quickly, and succinctly. Starting with the basics of R and statistical reasoning, this book dives into advanced predictive analytics, showing how to apply those techniques to real-world data though with real-world examples. Packed with engaging problems and exercises, this book begins with a review of R and its syntax with packages like Rcpp, ggplot2, and dplyr. From there, get to grips with the fundamentals of applied statistics and build on this knowledge to perform sophisticated and powerful analytics. Solve the difficulties relating to performing data analysis in practice and find solutions to working with messy data, large data, communicating results, and facilitating reproducibility. This book is engineered to be an invaluable resource through many stages of anyone’s career as a data analyst.
Title Page
Packt Upsell
Contributors
Preface
Free Chapter
RefresheR
The Shape of Data
Describing Relationships
Probability
Using Data To Reason About The World
Testing Hypotheses
Bayesian Methods
The Bootstrap
Predicting Continuous Variables
Predicting Categorical Variables
Predicting Changes with Time
Sources of Data
Dealing with Missing Data
Dealing with Messy Data
Dealing with Large Data
Working with Popular R Packages
Reproducibility and Best Practices
Other Books You May Enjoy
Index

## Sampling from distributions

Observing the outcome of trials that involve a random variable, a variable whose value changes due to chance, can be thought of as sampling from a probability distribution—one that describes the likelihood of each member of the sample space occurring.

That sentence probably sounds much scarier than it needs to be. Take a die roll for example:

Figure 4.1: Probability distribution of outcomes of a die roll

Each roll of a die is like sampling from a discrete probability distribution for which each outcome in the sample space has a probability of 0.167 or 1/6. This is an example of a uniform distribution, because all the outcomes are uniformly as likely to occur. Further, there are a finite number of outcomes, so this is a discrete uniform distribution (there also exist continuous uniform distributions).

Flipping a coin is like sampling from a uniform distribution with only two outcomes. More specifically, the probability distribution that describes coin-flip events is...