#### Overview of this book

Computer vision is found everywhere in modern technology. OpenCV for Python enables us to run computer vision algorithms in real time. With the advent of powerful machines, we have more processing power to work with. Using this technology, we can seamlessly integrate our computer vision applications into the cloud. Focusing on OpenCV 3.x and Python 3.6, this book will walk you through all the building blocks needed to build amazing computer vision applications with ease. We start off by manipulating images using simple filtering and geometric transformations. We then discuss affine and projective transformations and see how we can use them to apply cool advanced manipulations to your photos like resizing them while keeping the content intact or smoothly removing undesired elements. We will then cover techniques of object tracking, body part recognition, and object recognition using advanced techniques of machine learning such as artificial neural network. 3D reconstruction and augmented reality techniques are also included. The book covers popular OpenCV libraries with the help of examples. This book is a practical tutorial that covers various examples at different levels, teaching you about the different functions of OpenCV and their actual implementation. By the end of this book, you will have acquired the skills to use OpenCV and Python to develop real-world computer vision applications.
Title Page
Contributors
Packt Upsell
Preface
Free Chapter
Applying Geometric Transformations to Images
Detecting Edges and Applying Image Filters
Cartoonizing an Image
Detecting and Tracking Different Body Parts
Extracting Features from an Image
Seam Carving
Detecting Shapes and Segmenting an Image
Object Tracking
Machine Learning by an Artificial Neural Network
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## Image rotation

In this section, we will see how to rotate a given image by a certain angle. We can do it using the following piece of code:

```import cv2
import numpy as np
img = cv2.imread('images/input.jpg')num_rows, num_cols = img.shape[:2]
rotation_matrix = cv2.getRotationMatrix2D((num_cols/2, num_rows/2), 30, 0.7)
img_rotation = cv2.warpAffine(img, rotation_matrix, (num_cols, num_rows))
cv2.imshow('Rotation', img_rotation)
cv2.waitKey()```

If you run the preceding code, you will see an image like this:

### What just happened?

Using `getRotationMatrix2D`, we can specify the center point around which the image would be rotated as the first argument, then the angle of rotation in degrees, and a scaling factor for the image at the end. We use 0.7 to shrink the image by 30% so it fits in the frame.

In order to understand this, let's see how we handle rotation mathematically. Rotation is also a form of transformation, and we can achieve it by using the following transformation matrix:

Here, θ is the angle of rotation in the counterclockwise direction. OpenCV provides finer control over the creation of this matrix through the `getRotationMatrix2D` function. We can specify the point around which the image would be rotated, the angle of rotation in degrees, and a scaling factor for the image. Once we have the transformation matrix, we can use the warpAffine function to apply this matrix to any image.

As we can see from the previous figure, the image content goes out of bounds and gets cropped. In order to prevent this, we need to provide enough space in the output image.

Let's go ahead and do that using the translation functionality we discussed earlier:

```import cv2
import numpy as np