Capsule networks were introduced by Geoffrey Hinton as a way to overcome some of the limitations of standard CNNs. To understand the idea behind capsule networks, we need to understand these limitations first.

# Capsule networks

# Limitations of convolutional networks

Let's start with a quote from professor Hinton himself:

"The pooling operation used in convolutional neural networks is a big mistake and the fact that it works so well is a disaster."

What he means is that the CNNs are **translation-invariant**. To understand this, let's imagine a picture with a face, located in the right half of the picture. Translation invariance means that a CNN is very good at telling us that the picture contains a face, but...