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#### Overview of this book

Do you want to learn how to communicate with computer systems using Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques, or make a machine understand human sentiments? Do you want to build applications like Siri, Alexa, or chatbots, even if you’ve never done it before? With The Natural Language Processing Workshop, you can expect to make consistent progress as a beginner, and get up to speed in an interactive way, with the help of hands-on activities and fun exercises. The book starts with an introduction to NLP. You’ll study different approaches to NLP tasks, and perform exercises in Python to understand the process of preparing datasets for NLP models. Next, you’ll use advanced NLP algorithms and visualization techniques to collect datasets from open websites, and to summarize and generate random text from a document. In the final chapters, you’ll use NLP to create a chatbot that detects positive or negative sentiment in text documents such as movie reviews. By the end of this book, you’ll be equipped with the essential NLP tools and techniques you need to solve common business problems that involve processing text.
Preface
1. Introduction to Natural Language Processing
Free Chapter
2. Feature Extraction Methods
3. Developing a Text Classifier
4. Collecting Text Data with Web Scraping and APIs
5. Topic Modeling
6. Vector Representation
7. Text Generation and Summarization
8. Sentiment Analysis

# What Is a Vector?

The basic mathematical definition of a vector is an object that has both magnitude and direction. In our definition, it is mostly compared with a scalar, which can be defined as an object that has only magnitude. Vectors are also defined as an element in vector space—for example, a point in space with the coordinates (x=4, y=5, z=6) is a vector. Here, we can see the vector dimensions are the geometric coordinates of a point or element in space. However, the vector dimensions can also represent any quantity or property of some element or object in addition to mere geometric coordinates.

As an example, let's say that we're defining the weather at a given place using five features: temperature, humidity, precipitation, wind speed, and air pressure. The units that these would be measured in are Celsius, percentage, centimeters, kilometers per hour (km/h), and millibar (mbar), respectively. The following are the values for two places:

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