#### Overview of this book

Would you like to understand how and why machine learning techniques and data analytics are spearheading enterprises globally? From analyzing bioinformatics to predicting climate change, machine learning plays an increasingly pivotal role in our society. Although the real-world applications may seem complex, this book simplifies supervised learning for beginners with a step-by-step interactive approach. Working with real-time datasets, you’ll learn how supervised learning, when used with Python, can produce efficient predictive models. Starting with the fundamentals of supervised learning, you’ll quickly move to understand how to automate manual tasks and the process of assessing date using Jupyter and Python libraries like pandas. Next, you’ll use data exploration and visualization techniques to develop powerful supervised learning models, before understanding how to distinguish variables and represent their relationships using scatter plots, heatmaps, and box plots. After using regression and classification models on real-time datasets to predict future outcomes, you’ll grasp advanced ensemble techniques such as boosting and random forests. Finally, you’ll learn the importance of model evaluation in supervised learning and study metrics to evaluate regression and classification tasks. By the end of this book, you’ll have the skills you need to work on your real-life supervised learning Python projects.
Preface
1. Fundamentals
Free Chapter
2. Exploratory Data Analysis and Visualization
3. Linear Regression
4. Autoregression
5. Classification Techniques
6. Ensemble Modeling
7. Model Evaluation

# Distribution of Values

In this section, we'll look at how individual variables behave—what kind of values they take, what the distribution across those values is, and how those distributions can be represented visually.

## Target Variable

The target variable can either have values that are continuous (in the case of a regression problem) or discrete (as in the case of a classification problem). The problem statement we're looking at in this chapter involves predicting whether an earthquake caused a tsunami, that is, the `flag_tsunami` variable, which takes on two discrete values only—making it a classification problem.

One way of visualizing how many earthquakes resulted in tsunamis and how many didn't involves the use of a bar chart, where each bar represents a single discrete value of the variable, and the height of the bars is equal to the count of the data points having the corresponding discrete value. This gives us a good comparison of the absolute...