Book Image

Python Machine Learning By Example - Third Edition

By : Yuxi (Hayden) Liu
Book Image

Python Machine Learning By Example - Third Edition

By: Yuxi (Hayden) Liu

Overview of this book

Python Machine Learning By Example, Third Edition serves as a comprehensive gateway into the world of machine learning (ML). With six new chapters, on topics including movie recommendation engine development with Naïve Bayes, recognizing faces with support vector machine, predicting stock prices with artificial neural networks, categorizing images of clothing with convolutional neural networks, predicting with sequences using recurring neural networks, and leveraging reinforcement learning for making decisions, the book has been considerably updated for the latest enterprise requirements. At the same time, this book provides actionable insights on the key fundamentals of ML with Python programming. Hayden applies his expertise to demonstrate implementations of algorithms in Python, both from scratch and with libraries. Each chapter walks through an industry-adopted application. With the help of realistic examples, you will gain an understanding of the mechanics of ML techniques in areas such as exploratory data analysis, feature engineering, classification, regression, clustering, and NLP. By the end of this ML Python book, you will have gained a broad picture of the ML ecosystem and will be well-versed in the best practices of applying ML techniques to solve problems.
Table of Contents (17 chapters)
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Tuning models with cross-validation

We can simply avoid adopting the classification results from one fixed testing set, which we did in experiments previously. Instead, we usually apply the k-fold cross-validation technique to assess how a model will generally perform in practice.

In the k-fold cross-validation setting, the original data is first randomly divided into k equal-sized subsets, in which class proportion is often preserved. Each of these k subsets is then successively retained as the testing set for evaluating the model. During each trial, the rest of the k -1 subsets (excluding the one-fold holdout) form the training set for driving the model. Finally, the average performance across all k trials is calculated to generate an overall result:

Figure 2.9: Diagram of 3-fold cross-validation

Statistically, the averaged performance of k-fold cross-validation is a better estimate of how a model performs in general. Given...