#### Overview of this book

Are you looking to start developing artificial intelligence applications? Do you need a refresher on key mathematical concepts? Full of engaging practical exercises, The Statistics and Calculus with Python Workshop will show you how to apply your understanding of advanced mathematics in the context of Python. The book begins by giving you a high-level overview of the libraries you'll use while performing statistics with Python. As you progress, you'll perform various mathematical tasks using the Python programming language, such as solving algebraic functions with Python starting with basic functions, and then working through transformations and solving equations. Later chapters in the book will cover statistics and calculus concepts and how to use them to solve problems and gain useful insights. Finally, you'll study differential equations with an emphasis on numerical methods and learn about algorithms that directly calculate values of functions. By the end of this book, you’ll have learned how to apply essential statistics and calculus concepts to develop robust Python applications that solve business challenges.
Preface
1. Fundamentals of Python
Free Chapter
2. Python's Main Tools for Statistics
3. Python's Statistical Toolbox
4. Functions and Algebra with Python
5. More Mathematics with Python
6. Matrices and Markov Chains with Python
7. Doing Basic Statistics with Python
8. Foundational Probability Concepts and Their Applications
9. Intermediate Statistics with Python
10. Foundational Calculus with Python
11. More Calculus with Python
12. Intermediate Calculus with Python

# Complex Numbers

Mathematical ideas have been evolving regarding numbers and their relationships since ancient numerical systems. Historically, mathematical ideas have evolved from concrete to abstract ones. For instance, a set of natural numbers was created so that all physical objects in the world around us directly correspond to some number within this set. Since arithmetic and algebra have developed, it has become clear that numbers beyond the naturals or integers are necessary, so decimal and rational numbers were introduced. Similarly, around the times of Pythagoras, it was found that rational numbers cannot solve all numerical problems that we could construct with the geometry that was known at that time. This happened when irrational numbers—numbers that result from taking the square root of other numbers and that have no representation as ratios—were introduced.

Complex numbers are an extension of real numbers and include some special numbers that can provide...