Book Image

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

By : Denis Rothman
Book Image

Transformers for Natural Language Processing

By: Denis Rothman

Overview of this book

The transformer architecture has proved to be revolutionary in outperforming the classical RNN and CNN models in use today. With an apply-as-you-learn approach, Transformers for Natural Language Processing investigates in vast detail the deep learning for machine translations, speech-to-text, text-to-speech, language modeling, question answering, and many more NLP domains with transformers. The book takes you through NLP with Python and examines various eminent models and datasets within the transformer architecture created by pioneers such as Google, Facebook, Microsoft, OpenAI, and Hugging Face. The book trains you in three stages. The first stage introduces you to transformer architectures, starting with the original transformer, before moving on to RoBERTa, BERT, and DistilBERT models. You will discover training methods for smaller transformers that can outperform GPT-3 in some cases. In the second stage, you will apply transformers for Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG). Finally, the third stage will help you grasp advanced language understanding techniques such as optimizing social network datasets and fake news identification. By the end of this NLP book, you will understand transformers from a cognitive science perspective and be proficient in applying pretrained transformer models by tech giants to various datasets.
Table of Contents (16 chapters)
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Defining machine translation

Vaswani et al. (2017) tackled one of the most difficult NLP problems to design the Transformer. The human baseline for machine translation seems out of reach for us human-machine intelligence designers. This did not stop Vaswani et al. (2017) from publishing the Transformer's architecture and achieving state-of-the-art BLEU results.

In this section, we will define machine translation. Machine translation is the process of reproducing human translation by machine transductions and outputs:

Figure 5.1: Machine translation process

The general idea in Figure 5.1 is for the machine to do the following in a few steps:

  • Choose a sentence to translate
  • Learn how words relate to each other with millions upon millions of parameters
  • Learn the many ways words refer to each other
  • Use machine transduction to transfer the learned parameters to new sequences
  • Choose a candidate translation for a word or sequence
  • ...