# 4.4 Recursive Algorithms

A recursive algorithm is a type of algorithm that solves a problem by solving smaller instances of the same problem. In other words, a recursive algorithm breaks down a problem into smaller parts until the problem becomes simple enough to be solved directly. This strategy is based on the "divide and conquer" principle.

The concept of recursion is central to computer programming. Recursion allows a function to call itself, creating an iterative loop without the need for an explicit loop construct. However, it is important to define a base case or a simple subproblem that can be solved without further subdivision. This base case serves as the stopping point for the recursion, preventing infinite loops and ensuring that the algorithm terminates.

In practice, recursion can be used to solve a wide range of problems, from searching through data structures to sorting and even playing games like chess. While recursion can be a powerful tool in programming...