Book Image

Embedded Systems Architecture

By : Daniele Lacamera
Book Image

Embedded Systems Architecture

By: Daniele Lacamera

Overview of this book

Embedded systems are self-contained devices with a dedicated purpose. We come across a variety of fields of applications for embedded systems in industries such as automotive, telecommunications, healthcare and consumer electronics, just to name a few. Embedded Systems Architecture begins with a bird's eye view of embedded development and how it differs from the other systems that you may be familiar with. You will first be guided to set up an optimal development environment, then move on to software tools and methodologies to improve the work flow. You will explore the boot-up mechanisms and the memory management strategies typical of a real-time embedded system. Through the analysis of the programming interface of the reference microcontroller, you'll look at the implementation of the features and the device drivers. Next, you'll learn about the techniques used to reduce power consumption. Then you will be introduced to the technologies, protocols and security aspects related to integrating the system into IoT solutions. By the end of the book, you will have explored various aspects of embedded architecture, including task synchronization in a multi-threading environment, and the safety models adopted by modern real-time operating systems.
Table of Contents (18 chapters)
Title Page
Copyright and Credits
Packt Upsell

General-purpose I/O

The majority of the pins of a microcontroller chip represents configurable input/output lines. Each pin can be configured to represent a logic level by driving the voltage of the pin as a digital output, or to sense the logic state by comparing the voltage as a digital input. Some of the generic pins, though, can be associated to alternate functions, such as analog input, a serial interface, or the output pulse from a timer. Pins may have several possible configurations, but only one is activated at a time. The GPIO controller exposes the configuration of all the pins, and manages the association of the pins to the subsystems when alternate functions are in use.

Pin configuration

Depending on the logic of the GPIO controller, the pins can be activated all together, separately, or in groups. In order to implement a driver to set up the pins and use them as needed, it is possible to refer to the datasheet of the microcontroller, or any example implementation provided by the...