Book Image

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming

By : Chris Simmonds
Book Image

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming

By: Chris Simmonds

Overview of this book

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming takes you through the product cycle and gives you an in-depth description of the components and options that are available at each stage. You will begin by learning about toolchains, bootloaders, the Linux kernel, and how to configure a root filesystem to create a basic working device. You will then learn how to use the two most commonly used build systems, Buildroot and Yocto, to speed up and simplify the development process. Building on this solid base, the next section considers how to make best use of raw NAND/NOR flash memory and managed flash eMMC chips, including mechanisms for increasing the lifetime of the devices and to perform reliable in-field updates. Next, you need to consider what techniques are best suited to writing applications for your device. We will then see how functions are split between processes and the usage of POSIX threads, which have a big impact on the responsiveness and performance of the final device The closing sections look at the techniques available to developers for profiling and tracing applications and kernel code using perf and ftrace.
Table of Contents (22 chapters)
Mastering Embedded Linux Programming
About the Author
About the Reviewers

Virtual memory basics

To recap, Linux configures the memory management unit of the CPU to present a virtual address space to a running program that begins at zero and ends at the highest address, 0xffffffff on a 32-bit processor. That address space is divided into pages of 4 KiB (there are rare examples of systems using other page sizes).

Linux divides this virtual address space into an area for applications, called user space, and an area for the kernel, called kernel space. The split between the two is set by a kernel configuration parameter named PAGE_OFFSET. In a typical 32-bit embedded system, PAGE_OFFSET is 0xc0000000, giving the lower three GiB to user space and the top one GiB to kernel space. The user address space is allocated per process, so that each process runs in a sandbox, separated from the others. The kernel address space is the same for all processes: there is only one kernel.

Pages in this virtual address space are mapped to physical addresses by the memory management unit...