Book Image

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming

By : Chris Simmonds
Book Image

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming

By: Chris Simmonds

Overview of this book

Mastering Embedded Linux Programming takes you through the product cycle and gives you an in-depth description of the components and options that are available at each stage. You will begin by learning about toolchains, bootloaders, the Linux kernel, and how to configure a root filesystem to create a basic working device. You will then learn how to use the two most commonly used build systems, Buildroot and Yocto, to speed up and simplify the development process. Building on this solid base, the next section considers how to make best use of raw NAND/NOR flash memory and managed flash eMMC chips, including mechanisms for increasing the lifetime of the devices and to perform reliable in-field updates. Next, you need to consider what techniques are best suited to writing applications for your device. We will then see how functions are split between processes and the usage of POSIX threads, which have a big impact on the responsiveness and performance of the final device The closing sections look at the techniques available to developers for profiling and tracing applications and kernel code using perf and ftrace.
Table of Contents (22 chapters)
Mastering Embedded Linux Programming
About the Author
About the Reviewers

User space memory layout

Linux employs a lazy allocation strategy for user space, only mapping physical pages of memory when the program accesses it. For example, allocating a buffer of 1 MiB using malloc(3) returns a pointer to a block of memory addresses but no actual physical memory. A flag is set in the page table entries such that any read or write access is trapped by the kernel. This is known as a page fault. Only at this point does the kernel attempt to find a page of physical memory and add it to the page table mapping for the process. It is worthwhile demonstrating this with a simple program like this one:

#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#define BUFFER_SIZE (1024 * 1024)

void print_pgfaults(void)
  int ret;
  struct rusage usage;
  ret = getrusage(RUSAGE_SELF, &usage);
  if (ret == -1) {
  } else {
    printf ("Major page faults %ld\n", usage.ru_majflt);
    printf ("Minor...