Java is not the only programming language that you can use to make programs to the JVM. There are a lot of different programming languages, of different paradigms, that can be used for that purpose. Most of this has its own mechanism to implement concurrent applications.
In this chapter, we have seen how you can implement concurrent applications using three languages of the JVM. First, Clojure, which is an implementation of the Lisp functional programming language that offers different mechanisms to write concurrency applications as Atoms, agents, references, delays, futures, and promises. Then, Groovy with the GPars library, offers us a lot of different possibilities with its actors, its dataflows, and its concurrent data structures. Finally, we have Scala and its concurrency model based on Futures and Promises.