#### Overview of this book

Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms covers classical, functional, and reactive data structures, giving you the ability to understand computational complexity, solve problems, and write efficient code. This book is based on the Zero Bug Bounce milestone of Java 9. We start off with the basics of algorithms and data structures, helping you understand the fundamentals and measure complexity. From here, we introduce you to concepts such as arrays, linked lists, as well as abstract data types such as stacks and queues. Next, we’ll take you through the basics of functional programming while making sure you get used to thinking recursively. We provide plenty of examples along the way to help you understand each concept. You will also get a clear picture of reactive programming, binary searches, sorting, search trees, undirected graphs, and a whole lot more!
Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms
Credits
www.PacktPub.com
Customer Feedback
Preface
Free Chapter
Why Bother? – Basic
Cogs and Pulleys – Building Blocks
Protocols – Abstract Data Types
Detour – Functional Programming
Efficient Searching – Binary Search and Sorting
Efficient Sorting – quicksort and mergesort
Concepts of Tree
More About Search – Search Trees and Hash Tables
Concepts of Graph
Reactive Programming
Index

## Binary tree

A binary tree is a tree that has a maximum of two children per node. The two children can be called the left and the right child of a node. The following figure shows an example of a binary tree:

Example binary tree

This particular tree is important mostly because of its simplicity. We can create a `BinaryTree` class by inheriting the general tree class. However, it will be difficult to stop someone from adding more than two nodes and will take a lot of code just to perform the checks. So, instead, we will create a `BinaryTree` class from scratch:

`public class BinaryTree<E>  {`

The `Node` has a very obvious implementation just like the generic tree:

```    public static class Node<E>{
private E value;
private Node<E> left;
private Node<E> right;
private Node<E> parent;
private BinaryTree<E> containerTree;

protected Node(Node<E> parent,
BinaryTree<E> containerTree, E value) {
...```