#### Overview of this book

Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms covers classical, functional, and reactive data structures, giving you the ability to understand computational complexity, solve problems, and write efficient code. This book is based on the Zero Bug Bounce milestone of Java 9. We start off with the basics of algorithms and data structures, helping you understand the fundamentals and measure complexity. From here, we introduce you to concepts such as arrays, linked lists, as well as abstract data types such as stacks and queues. Next, we’ll take you through the basics of functional programming while making sure you get used to thinking recursively. We provide plenty of examples along the way to help you understand each concept. You will also get a clear picture of reactive programming, binary searches, sorting, search trees, undirected graphs, and a whole lot more!
Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms
Credits
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Preface
Free Chapter
Why Bother? – Basic
Cogs and Pulleys – Building Blocks
Protocols – Abstract Data Types
Detour – Functional Programming
Efficient Searching – Binary Search and Sorting
Efficient Sorting – quicksort and mergesort
Concepts of Tree
More About Search – Search Trees and Hash Tables
Concepts of Graph
Reactive Programming
Index

## Self-balancing binary search tree

A binary search tree that remains balanced to some extent when insertion and deletion is carried out is called a self-balancing binary search tree. To create a balanced version of an unbalanced tree, we use a peculiar operation called rotation. We will discuss rotation in the following section:

Rotation of a binary search tree

This figure shows the rotation operation on nodes A and B. Left rotation on A creates the right image, and right rotation on B creates the left image. To visualize a rotation, first think about pulling out the subtree D. This subtree is somewhere in the middle. Now the nodes are rotated in either the left or right direction. In the case of the left rotation, the right child becomes the parent and the parent becomes the left child of the original child. Once this rotation is done, the D subtree is added to the right child's position of the original parent. The right rotation is exactly the same but in the opposite direction.

How does it...