#### Overview of this book

Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms covers classical, functional, and reactive data structures, giving you the ability to understand computational complexity, solve problems, and write efficient code. This book is based on the Zero Bug Bounce milestone of Java 9. We start off with the basics of algorithms and data structures, helping you understand the fundamentals and measure complexity. From here, we introduce you to concepts such as arrays, linked lists, as well as abstract data types such as stacks and queues. Next, we’ll take you through the basics of functional programming while making sure you get used to thinking recursively. We provide plenty of examples along the way to help you understand each concept. You will also get a clear picture of reactive programming, binary searches, sorting, search trees, undirected graphs, and a whole lot more!
Java 9 Data Structures and Algorithms
Credits
www.PacktPub.com
Customer Feedback
Preface
Free Chapter
Why Bother? – Basic
Cogs and Pulleys – Building Blocks
Protocols – Abstract Data Types
Detour – Functional Programming
Efficient Searching – Binary Search and Sorting
Efficient Sorting – quicksort and mergesort
Concepts of Tree
More About Search – Search Trees and Hash Tables
Concepts of Graph
Reactive Programming
Index

A linked heap is an actual binary tree where every node holds references to its children. We first create a skeleton structure for our heap:

```public class LinkedHeap<E> implements PriorityQueue<E>{

protected static class Node<E>{
protected E value;
protected Node<E> left;
protected Node<E> right;
protected Node<E> parent;
public Node(E value, Node<E> parent){
this.value = value;
this.parent = parent;
}
}
…
}```

To keep track of the next position, each position is given a number, just like we did in our array-based representation. We have the same calculation for the index of the parent and children. But, in this case, looking up the value at a particular index requires a traversal from the root to that node. We create a method to do this. Note that since we are not using an array, the position starts from 1. We start by finding the parent node recursively....