#### Overview of this book

Spatial statistics has the potential to provide insight that is not otherwise available through traditional GIS tools. This book is designed to introduce you to the use of spatial statistics so you can solve complex geographic analysis. The book begins by introducing you to the many spatial statistics tools available in ArcGIS. You will learn how to analyze patterns, map clusters, and model spatial relationships with these tools. Further on, you will explore how to extend the spatial statistics tools currently available in ArcGIS, and use the R programming language to create custom tools in ArcGIS through the ArcGIS Bridge using real-world examples. At the end of the book, you will be presented with two exciting case studies where you will be able to practically apply all your learning to analyze and gain insights into real estate data.
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Introduction to Spatial Statistics in ArcGIS and R
Measuring Geographic Distributions with ArcGIS Tools
Analyzing Patterns with ArcGIS Tools
Modeling Spatial Relationships with ArcGIS Tools
Working with the Utilities Toolset
Introduction to the R Programming Language
Creating Custom ArcGIS Tools with ArcGIS Bridge and R
Application of Spatial Statistics to Crime Analysis
Application of Spatial Statistics to Real Estate Analysis

## Measuring geographic centrality

In this exercise, all three tools will be used to obtain descriptive spatial statistics about crime data for the city of Denver.

### Preparation

Let's get prepared for obtaining spatial statistical information about a dataset using ArcGIS, as follows:

1. In `ArcMap`, open the `C:GeospatialTrainingSpatialStatsDenverCrime.mxd` file. You should see a point feature class called `Crime`, as shown in the following screenshot:

Point locations for all crimes for the city of Denver 2013

1. The `Crime` feature class contains point locations for all crimes for the city of Denver in 2013. The first thing we need to do is isolate a type of crime for our analysis. Open the attribute table for the crime feature class.

1. Use the `Select by Attributes...` tool to select all records where the `OFFENSE_CATEGORY_ID ='burglary'` method, as shown in the following screenshot. This will select 25,743 burglaries from the dataset. These are burglaries within the city limits of Denver in 2013:
1. Close the attribute...