#### Overview of this book

Spatial statistics has the potential to provide insight that is not otherwise available through traditional GIS tools. This book is designed to introduce you to the use of spatial statistics so you can solve complex geographic analysis. The book begins by introducing you to the many spatial statistics tools available in ArcGIS. You will learn how to analyze patterns, map clusters, and model spatial relationships with these tools. Further on, you will explore how to extend the spatial statistics tools currently available in ArcGIS, and use the R programming language to create custom tools in ArcGIS through the ArcGIS Bridge using real-world examples. At the end of the book, you will be presented with two exciting case studies where you will be able to practically apply all your learning to analyze and gain insights into real estate data.
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Introduction to Spatial Statistics in ArcGIS and R
Measuring Geographic Distributions with ArcGIS Tools
Analyzing Patterns with ArcGIS Tools
Modeling Spatial Relationships with ArcGIS Tools
Working with the Utilities Toolset
Introduction to the R Programming Language
Creating Custom ArcGIS Tools with ArcGIS Bridge and R
Application of Spatial Statistics to Crime Analysis
Application of Spatial Statistics to Real Estate Analysis

## Variables and assignment

In the R programming language, like other languages, variables are given a name and assigned data. Each variable has a name that represents its area in memory. In R, variables are case sensitive, so use care in naming your variables and referring to them later in your code. There are two ways in which this can be done, and both are illustrated in the following screenshot:

Let's take a look at the following ways in which we can use to name a variable and assign data to it:

1. In the first code example, a variable named `x` is created. The use of a less-than sign immediately followed by a dash then follows the variable name. This is the operator used to assign data to a variable in R. On the right-hand side of this operator is the value being assigned to the variable. In this case, the value `10` has been assigned to the variable `x`. To print the value of a variable in R, you can simple type the variable name and then press the Enter key on your keyboard.
2. The other way of creating...