Book Image

PostgreSQL High Availability Cookbook - Second Edition

By : Shaun Thomas
Book Image

PostgreSQL High Availability Cookbook - Second Edition

By: Shaun Thomas

Overview of this book

Databases are nothing without the data they store. In the event of a failure - catastrophic or otherwise - immediate recovery is essential. By carefully combining multiple servers, it’s even possible to hide the fact a failure occurred at all. From hardware selection to software stacks and horizontal scalability, this book will help you build a versatile PostgreSQL cluster that will survive crashes, resist data corruption, and grow smoothly with customer demand. It all begins with hardware selection for the skeleton of an efficient PostgreSQL database cluster. Then it’s on to preventing downtime as well as troubleshooting some real life problems that administrators commonly face. Next, we add database monitoring to the stack, using collectd, Nagios, and Graphite. And no stack is complete without replication using multiple internal and external tools, including the newly released pglogical extension. Pacemaker or Raft consensus tools are the final piece to grant the cluster the ability to heal itself. We even round off by tackling the complex problem of data scalability. This book exploits many new features introduced in PostgreSQL 9.6 to make the database more efficient and adaptive, and most importantly, keep it running.
Table of Contents (18 chapters)
Title Page
About the Author
About the Reviewer
Customer Feedback

Talking to the right shard

In this chapter, we have chosen to represent database shards as PostgreSQL schema names. So, if our basic schema is named myapp, shard 1 would be myapp1, shard 15 would be myapp15, and so on. This is what we call the logical shard name.

Beyond this, shards should be independent of each other such that they can be relocated to another PostgreSQL server arbitrarily. However, if shards can be moved at will, how do we find them? Much like LVM has a physical drive, logical shards have a corresponding physical shard. The physical shard is the server where the logical shard currently resides. Think of it like this diagram:

Elements such as clients, products, and vendors are shared resources that all PostgreSQL shard servers can use. This is where our foreign tables would be beneficial. The logical shards (schemas) myapp1 through myapp4 all reside on PG Server 1, and myapp5 through myapp8 live on PG Server 2. In this architecture, we have eight logical shards distributed...