Book Image

Rust Programming By Example

By : Guillaume Gomez, Antoni Boucher
Book Image

Rust Programming By Example

By: Guillaume Gomez, Antoni Boucher

Overview of this book

Rust is an open source, safe, concurrent, practical language created by Mozilla. It runs blazingly fast, prevents segfaults, and guarantees safety. This book gets you started with essential software development by guiding you through the different aspects of Rust programming. With this approach, you can bridge the gap between learning and implementing immediately. Beginning with an introduction to Rust, you’ll learn the basic aspects such as its syntax, data types, functions, generics, control flows, and more. After this, you’ll jump straight into building your first project, a Tetris game. Next you’ll build a graphical music player and work with fast, reliable networking software using Tokio, the scalable and productive asynchronous IO Rust library. Over the course of this book, you’ll explore various features of Rust Programming including its SDL features, event loop, File I/O, and the famous GTK+ widget toolkit. Through these projects, you’ll see how well Rust performs in terms of concurrency—including parallelism, reliability, improved performance, generics, macros, and thread safety. We’ll also cover some asynchronous and reactive programming aspects of Rust. By the end of the book, you’ll be comfortable building various real-world applications in Rust.
Table of Contents (18 chapters)
Title Page
Copyright and Credits
Packt Upsell
Events and Basic Game Mechanisms

Creating structures

Sometimes, we have multiple values that only make sense together, such as the two coordinates of a point. Structures are a way to create new types that contains multiple members.

Here is how we would create the aforementioned Point structure:

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,

To create a new point and access its members, we use the following syntax:

let point = Point {
    x: 24,
    y: 42,
println!("({}, {})", point.x, point.y);

What if we want to print the point as a whole?

Let's try the following:

println!("{}", point);

The compiler does not accept this:

error[E0277]: the trait bound `Point: std::fmt::Display` is not satisfied
 --> src/
7 |     println!("{}", point);
  |                    ^^^^^ `Point` cannot be formatted with the default formatter; try using `:?` instead if you are using a format string
  = help: the trait `std::fmt::Display` is not implemented for `Point`
  = note: required by `std::fmt::Display::fmt`

The {} syntax is used to display a value to the end user of the application. Nevertheless, there's no standard way to display arbitrary structures. We can do what the compiler suggests: using the {:?} syntax. That requires you to add an attribute to the structure, so let's change it:

struct Point {
    x: i32,
    y: i32,

println!("{:?}", point);

The #[derive(Debug)] attribute tells the compiler to automatically generate the code to be able to print a debug representation of the structure. We'll see how this works in the section about traits. It prints the following:

Point { x: 24, y: 42 }

Sometimes, the structure contains a lot of nested fields and this representation is hard to read. To remedy that, we can use the {:#?} syntax to pretty-print the value:

println!("{:#?}", point);

This gives the following output:

Point {
    x: 24,
    y: 42

The documentation describes what other formatting syntax can be used: