#### Overview of this book

Choosing the right data structure is pivotal to optimizing the performance and scalability of applications. This new edition of Hands-On Data Structures and Algorithms with Python will expand your understanding of key structures, including stacks, queues, and lists, and also show you how to apply priority queues and heaps in applications. You’ll learn how to analyze and compare Python algorithms, and understand which algorithms should be used for a problem based on running time and computational complexity. You will also become confident organizing your code in a manageable, consistent, and scalable way, which will boost your productivity as a Python developer. By the end of this Python book, you’ll be able to manipulate the most important data structures and algorithms to more efficiently store, organize, and access data in your applications.
Preface
Free Chapter
Python Data Types and Structures
Introduction to Algorithm Design
Algorithm Design Techniques and Strategies
Stacks and Queues
Trees
Heaps and Priority Queues
Hash Tables
Graphs and Algorithms
Searching
Sorting
Selection Algorithms
String Matching Algorithms
Other Books You May Enjoy
Index

# Quicksort algorithm

Quicksort is an efficient sorting algorithm. The quicksort algorithm is based on the divide-and-conquer class of algorithms, similar to the merge sort algorithm, where we break (divide) a problem into smaller chunks that are much simpler to solve, and further, the final results are obtained by combining the outputs of smaller problems (conquer).

The concept behind quicksorting is partitioning a given list or array. To partition the list, we first select a data element from the given list, which is called a pivot element.

We can choose any element as a pivot element in the list. However, for the sake of simplicity, we’ll take the first element in the array as the pivot element. Next, all the elements in the list are compared with this pivot element. At the end of first iteration, all the elements of the list are arranged in such a way that the elements which are less than the pivot element are arranged to the left of the pivot, that the elements...