#### Overview of this book

Dancing with Python helps you learn Python and quantum computing in a practical way. It will help you explore how to work with numbers, strings, collections, iterators, and files. The book goes beyond functions and classes and teaches you to use Python and Qiskit to create gates and circuits for classical and quantum computing. Learn how quantum extends traditional techniques using the Grover Search Algorithm and the code that implements it. Dive into some advanced and widely used applications of Python and revisit strings with more sophisticated tools, such as regular expressions and basic natural language processing (NLP). The final chapters introduce you to data analysis, visualizations, and supervised and unsupervised machine learning. By the end of the book, you will be proficient in programming the latest and most powerful quantum computers, the Pythonic way.
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Chapter 1: Doing the Things That Coders Do
Part I: Getting to Know Python
Chapter 2: Working with Expressions
Chapter 3: Collecting Things Together
Chapter 4: Stringing You Along
Chapter 5: Computing and Calculating
Chapter 6: Defining and Using Functions
Chapter 7: Organizing Objects into Classes
Chapter 8: Working with Files
PART II: Algorithms and Circuits
Chapter 9: Understanding Gates and Circuits
Chapter 10: Optimizing and Testing Your Code
Chapter 11: Searching for the Quantum Improvement
PART III: Advanced Features and Libraries
Chapter 12: Searching and Changing Text
Chapter 13: Creating Plots and Charts
Chapter 14: Analyzing Data
Chapter 15: Learning, Briefly
References
Other Books You May Enjoy
Index
Appendices
Appendix B: Staying Current
Appendix C: The Complete UniPoly Class
Appendix D: The Complete Guitar Class Hierarchy
Appendix E: Notices
Appendix F: Production Notes

# 9.5 Universality for bit gates

Do we need all these gates? Is there some subset of the 1- and 2-bit gates that can generate all the others? Let’s begin with a nand gate and see what we can build from there.

The first new construction is that not `x` = `x` nand `x`. If we feed `x` to both inputs of nand, we get the same result as not!

The black dot “●” reuses the bit’s value so we can use it as two inputs.

This circuit shows that if we have nand, we don’t need not as well. Though we may use not in circuits, it is superfluous.

The original set of 1- and 2-bit gates was

not and or xor nand nor xnor .

Since `x` and `y` = not (`x` nand `y`), the gates we still need are

or xor nand nor xnor .

We can construct or from three nand gates.

Since `x` nor `y` = not (`x` nor `y`), our list of required gates...