Book Image

Template Metaprogramming with C++

By : Marius Bancila
5 (1)
Book Image

Template Metaprogramming with C++

5 (1)
By: Marius Bancila

Overview of this book

Learn how the metaprogramming technique enables you to create data structures and functions that allow computation to happen at compile time. With this book, you'll realize how templates help you avoid writing duplicate code and are key to creating generic libraries, such as the standard library or Boost, that can be used in a multitude of programs. The introductory chapters of this book will give you insights into the fundamentals of templates and metaprogramming. You'll then move on to practice writing complex templates and exploring advanced concepts such as template recursion, template argument deduction, forwarding references, type traits, and conditional compilation. Along the way, you'll learn how to write variadic templates and how to provide requirements to the template arguments with C++20 constraints and concepts. Finally, you'll apply your knowledge of C++ metaprogramming templates to implement various metaprogramming patterns and techniques. By the end of this book, you'll have learned how to write effective templates and implement metaprogramming in your everyday programming journey.
Table of Contents (16 chapters)
Part 1: Core Template Concepts
Part 2: Advanced Template Features
Part 3: Applied Templates
Appendix: Closing Notes

Understanding friendship in templates

When you define a class, you can restrict access to its member data and member functions with the protected and private access specifiers. If a member is private, it can only be accessed within the class. If a member is protected, it can be accessed from derived classes with public or protected access. However, a class can grant access to its private or protected members to other functions or classes with the help of the friend keyword. These functions or classes, to which special access has been granted, are called friends. Let’s take a look at a simple example:

struct wrapper
   wrapper(int const v) :value(v) {}
   int value;
   friend void print(wrapper const & w);
void print(wrapper const& w)
{ std::cout << w.value << '\n'; }
wrapper w{ 42 };

The wrapper class has a private data member called value. There is a free...