1.2. Particles and matter
In general, particles and matter have three unique properties that do not change: mass, charge, and magnetic spin. For some particles, these properties can have a value of zero; otherwise, these properties are real numbers and can be measured experimentally. Mass can only be positive, while charge can be positive or negative.
In the following subsections, we will review elementary and composite particles, which include both fermions and bosons. Understanding these kinds of particles is fundamental to the understanding of quantum chemistry and the potential use of quantum computing.
Elementary particles are either fermions or bosons [Part_1]. The term fermion was coined by Dirac, who was inspired by the physicist Enrico Fermi. Elementary boson particles are part of the Standard Model [Std_model] and do not necessarily take part in quantum chemistry, but rather fundamental physics.