Book Image

Software Architecture with C++

By : Adrian Ostrowski, Piotr Gaczkowski
Book Image

Software Architecture with C++

By: Adrian Ostrowski, Piotr Gaczkowski

Overview of this book

Software architecture refers to the high-level design of complex applications. It is evolving just like the languages we use, but there are architectural concepts and patterns that you can learn to write high-performance apps in a high-level language without sacrificing readability and maintainability. If you're working with modern C++, this practical guide will help you put your knowledge to work and design distributed, large-scale apps. You'll start by getting up to speed with architectural concepts, including established patterns and rising trends, then move on to understanding what software architecture actually is and start exploring its components. Next, you'll discover the design concepts involved in application architecture and the patterns in software development, before going on to learn how to build, package, integrate, and deploy your components. In the concluding chapters, you'll explore different architectural qualities, such as maintainability, reusability, testability, performance, scalability, and security. Finally, you will get an overview of distributed systems, such as service-oriented architecture, microservices, and cloud-native, and understand how to apply them in application development. By the end of this book, you'll be able to build distributed services using modern C++ and associated tools to deliver solutions as per your clients' requirements.
Table of Contents (24 chapters)
Section 1: Concepts and Components of Software Architecture
Section 2: The Design and Development of C++ Software
Architectural and System Design
Section 3: Architectural Quality Attributes
Section 4: Cloud-Native Design Principles
About Packt

Optional class members

Achieving coherence in a class state is not always an easy task. For instance, sometimes, you want to have a member or two that can simply not be set. Instead of creating another class for such a case (which increases code complexity) or reserving a special value (which is easy to pass unnoticed),  you can use an optional class member. Consider the following type:

struct UserProfile {
std::string nickname;
std::optional <std::string> full_name;
std::optional <std::string> address;
std::optional <PhoneNumber> phone;

Here, we can see which fields are necessary and which ones don't need to be filled. The same data could be stored using empty strings, but this wouldn't be clearly visible just from the struct's definition. Another alternative would be to use std::unique_ptr's, but then we would lose data locality, which is often essential for performance. For such cases, std::optional can be of great value. It should definitely...