Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Preface
Creativity with Graphics
Improving the Performance of Your Code
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Creating an adjacency matrix representation of a directed graph

An adjacency matrix is a square matrix that is used to represent a graph. The rows and columns of the matrix are labeled as per the graph vertices. So, if the graph vertices are 1,2,...5, then the rows and columns of the adjacency matrix will be labeled as 1,2,...5. Initially, the matrix is filled with all zeros (0). Then, the 0 at the mat[i][j] location (where i and j refer to the vertices) is replaced by 1 if there is an edge between the vertices of i and j. For example, if there is an edge from vertex 2 to vertex 3, then at the mat[2][3] index location, the value of 0 will be replaced by 1. In short, the elements of the adjacency matrix indicate whether pairs of vertices are adjacent or not in the graph.

Consider the following directed graph:

Figure 10.3

Its adjacency matrix representation is as follows...