#### Overview of this book

Used in everything from microcontrollers to operating systems, C is a popular programming language among developers because of its flexibility and versatility. This book helps you get hands-on with various tasks, covering the fundamental as well as complex C programming concepts that are essential for making real-life applications. You’ll start with recipes for arrays, strings, user-defined functions, and pre-processing directives. Once you’re familiar with the basic features, you’ll gradually move on to learning pointers, file handling, concurrency, networking, and inter-process communication (IPC). The book then illustrates how to carry out searching and arrange data using different sorting techniques, before demonstrating the implementation of data structures such as stacks and queues. Later, you’ll learn interesting programming features such as using graphics for drawing and animation, and the application of general-purpose utilities. Finally, the book will take you through advanced concepts such as low-level programming, embedded software, IoT, and security in coding, as well as techniques for improving code performance. By the end of this book, you'll have a clear understanding of C programming, and have the skills you need to develop robust apps.
Preface
Creativity with Graphics
Improving the Performance of Your Code
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# Arranging numbers in ascending order using bubble sort

In this recipe, we will learn how to arrange some integers in ascending order using the bubble sort technique. In this technique, the first element is compared with the second, the second is compared with the third, the third with the fourth, and so on.

# How to do it…

Consider an array, arr, of size len elements. We want to arrange elements of the arr array in ascending order. Here are the steps to do so:

1. Initialize a variable, say i, to len -2.
2. Follow and repeat steps 3 through 5 as long as i >=1.  The value of i will be decremented by 1 after every iteration, that is, i=len-2, len-3, len-4, ....1.
1. Initialize another variable, j, to 0.
2. Repeat step...