Book Image

Advanced C++

By : Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price
5 (1)
Book Image

Advanced C++

5 (1)
By: Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price

Overview of this book

C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages and is applied in a variety of domains, right from gaming to graphical user interface (GUI) programming and even operating systems. If you're looking to expand your career opportunities, mastering the advanced features of C++ is key. The book begins with advanced C++ concepts by helping you decipher the sophisticated C++ type system and understand how various stages of compilation convert source code to object code. You'll then learn how to recognize the tools that need to be used in order to control the flow of execution, capture data, and pass data around. By creating small models, you'll even discover how to use advanced lambdas and captures and express common API design patterns in C++. As you cover later chapters, you'll explore ways to optimize your code by learning about memory alignment, cache access, and the time a program takes to run. The concluding chapter will help you to maximize performance by understanding modern CPU branch prediction and how to make your code cache-friendly. By the end of this book, you'll have developed programming skills that will set you apart from other C++ programmers.
Table of Contents (11 chapters)
6. Streams and I/O

Creating User Types

The great thing about C++ is that you can create your own types using struct, class, enum, or union and the compiler will treat it as a fundamental type throughout the code. In this section, we will explore creating our own type and the methods that we need to write to manipulate it, as well as some methods that the compiler will create for us.


The simplest user-defined type is the enumeration. Enumerations got an overhaul in C++11 to make them even more type-safe, so we have to consider two different declaration syntaxes. Before we look at how to declare them, let's figure out why we need them. Consider the following code:

int check_file(const char* name)


  FILE* fptr{fopen(name,"r")};

  if ( fptr == nullptr)

    return -1;

  char buffer[120];

  auto numberRead = fread(buffer, 1, 30, fptr);


  if (numberRead != 30)

    return -2;