Book Image

Advanced C++

By : Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price
5 (1)
Book Image

Advanced C++

5 (1)
By: Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price

Overview of this book

C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages and is applied in a variety of domains, right from gaming to graphical user interface (GUI) programming and even operating systems. If you're looking to expand your career opportunities, mastering the advanced features of C++ is key. The book begins with advanced C++ concepts by helping you decipher the sophisticated C++ type system and understand how various stages of compilation convert source code to object code. You'll then learn how to recognize the tools that need to be used in order to control the flow of execution, capture data, and pass data around. By creating small models, you'll even discover how to use advanced lambdas and captures and express common API design patterns in C++. As you cover later chapters, you'll explore ways to optimize your code by learning about memory alignment, cache access, and the time a program takes to run. The concluding chapter will help you to maximize performance by understanding modern CPU branch prediction and how to make your code cache-friendly. By the end of this book, you'll have developed programming skills that will set you apart from other C++ programmers.
Table of Contents (11 chapters)
6. Streams and I/O

Inheritance, Polymorphism, and Interfaces

So far in our journey of object-oriented design and C++, we have focused on abstraction and data encapsulation. We will now turn our attention to inheritance and polymorphism. What is inheritance? What is polymorphism? Why do we need it? Consider the following three objects:

Figure 2B.1: Vehicle objects

In the preceding diagram, we can see that there are three very different objects. They have some things in common. They all have wheels (a different number), an engine (different size, power, or configuration), start engine, drive, apply brakes, stop engine, and so on, using which we can do something.

So, we can abstract them into something called a vehicle that demonstrates these attributes and general behaviors. If we express this as a C++ class, it might look like the following:

class Vehicle



  Vehicle() = default;

  Vehicle(int numberWheels, int engineSize) :