Book Image

Advanced C++

By : Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price
5 (1)
Book Image

Advanced C++

5 (1)
By: Gazihan Alankus, Olena Lizina, Rakesh Mane, Vivek Nagarajan, Brian Price

Overview of this book

C++ is one of the most widely used programming languages and is applied in a variety of domains, right from gaming to graphical user interface (GUI) programming and even operating systems. If you're looking to expand your career opportunities, mastering the advanced features of C++ is key. The book begins with advanced C++ concepts by helping you decipher the sophisticated C++ type system and understand how various stages of compilation convert source code to object code. You'll then learn how to recognize the tools that need to be used in order to control the flow of execution, capture data, and pass data around. By creating small models, you'll even discover how to use advanced lambdas and captures and express common API design patterns in C++. As you cover later chapters, you'll explore ways to optimize your code by learning about memory alignment, cache access, and the time a program takes to run. The concluding chapter will help you to maximize performance by understanding modern CPU branch prediction and how to make your code cache-friendly. By the end of this book, you'll have developed programming skills that will set you apart from other C++ programmers.
Table of Contents (11 chapters)
6. Streams and I/O

Exceptions in C++

We have seen how C++ manages the local scope variables with automatic and dynamic lifetime. It calls the destructors of variables with an automatic lifetime when they go out of scope. We've also seen how raw pointers get destroyed when they go out of scope. As it does not clean up the dynamic lifetime variables, we lose them. This is a part of the story that builds us towards Resource Acquisition Is Initialization (RAII) later. But, first, we need to understand how exceptions change the flow of the program.

The Need for Exceptions

In Chapter 2A, No Ducks Allowed – Types and Deduction, we were introduced to enumerations as a way of dealing with magic numbers for the check_file() function:

FileCheckStatus check_file(const char* name)


  FILE* fptr{fopen(name,"r")};

  if ( fptr == nullptr)

    return FileCheckStatus::NotFound;

  char buffer[30];

  auto numberRead = fread(buffer, 1, 30, fptr);