#### Overview of this book

C++ is a mature multi-paradigm programming language that enables you to write high-level code with a high degree of control over the hardware. Today, significant parts of software infrastructure, including databases, browsers, multimedia frameworks, and GUI toolkits, are written in C++. This book starts by introducing C++ data structures and how to store data using linked lists, arrays, stacks, and queues. In later chapters, the book explains the basic algorithm design paradigms, such as the greedy approach and the divide-and-conquer approach, which are used to solve a large variety of computational problems. Finally, you will learn the advanced technique of dynamic programming to develop optimized implementations of several algorithms discussed in the book. By the end of this book, you will have learned how to implement standard data structures and algorithms in efficient and scalable C++ 14 code.
Free Chapter
1. Lists, Stacks, and Queues
2. Trees, Heaps, and Graphs
3. Hash Tables and Bloom Filters
4. Divide and Conquer
5. Greedy Algorithms
6. Graph Algorithms I
7. Graph Algorithms II
8. Dynamic Programming I
9. Dynamic Programming II

## Bloom Filters

Bloom filters are extremely space-efficient compared to hash tables, but at the cost of deterministic answers; that is, we get an answer that is unsure. It only guarantees that there won't be any false negatives, but there may be false positives. In other words, if we get a positive hit, the element may or may not be present; but if we get a negative, then the element is definitely not present.

Just like cuckoo hashing, we will use multiple hash functions here. However, we'll keep three functions, as two functions cannot achieve decent accuracy. The fundamental idea is that instead of storing the actual values, we store an array of Booleans indicating whether or not a value is (maybe) present.

To insert an element, we compute the value of all the hash functions and set the bits corresponding to all three hash values in the array to 1. For lookup, we compute the value of all the hash functions and check whether all the corresponding bits are set to 1. If so, we return...