Learning about Grover's search algorithm
Search algorithms are unique in that they can be leveraged by various algorithms to find information, whether in a data repository or a list of values such as features in an image. The advantage to quantum, of course, is in the potential for the speed-up of the search. Grover's algorithm is one such example. It uses a well-known technique that allows the use of interference to amplify certain states in our quantum circuit in a way that will increase the amplitude of the value we are searching for and decrease those that we are not. Let's start, as always, by describing the problem, where each state is analogous to an entry in an unordered list.
Learning about the problem
Classically, this can be done in, in the best case,...