Creating a quantum teleportation circuit
In this section, we will create a quantum teleportation circuit to share the state, , of a qubit by communicating, classically, two bits of information. Now, you may be wondering, as I did when I first learned about this scenario, why would I need to share two bits of information and not just the state of the qubit itself? Well, the answer comes down to the no-cloning theorem.
To learn more about the no-cloning theorem, I would recommend reading the ERP Paradox paper proposed by physicists Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen.
Without going into the quantum mechanical proofs, the theorem states that creating a copy of a qubit from an arbitrary unknown state is not possible as there is no unitary operator that can clone all states of one qubit into another. That being said, we need to look at other means to pass the state of one qubit to another. Quantum teleportation helps us do that.
To properly understand this example, let's...