#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# Matrices

NumPy arrays also serve as matrices, which are fundamental in mathematics and computational programming. A matrix is simply a two-dimensional array. Matrices are central in many applications, such as geometric transformations and simultaneous equations, but also appear as useful tools in other areas such a statistics. Matrices themselves are only distinctive (compared to any other array) once we equip them with matrix arithmetic. Matrices have element-wise addition and subtraction operations, just as for NumPy arrays, a third operation called scalar multiplication, where we multiply every element of the matrix by a constant number, and a different notion of matrix multiplication. Matrix multiplication is fundamentally different from other notions of multiplication, as we will see later.

One of the most important attributes of a matrix is its shape, defined exactly as for NumPy arrays. A matrix with m rows and n columns is usuallydescribed as an m × n matrix...