#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# How to do it...

Follow these steps to create a simple plot of the capital cities plotted on a map of the world using sample data:

1. First, we need to load the sample data from the GeoPandas package, which contains the world geometry information:
`world = geopandas.read_file(        geopandas.datasets.get_path("naturalearth_lowres"))`
1. Next, we need to load the data containing the name and position of each of the capital cities of the world:
`cities = geopandas.read_file(        geopandas.datasets.get_path("naturalearth_cities"))`
1. Now, we can create a new figure and plot the outline of the world geometry using the polyplot routine:
`fig, ax = plt.subplots()geoplot.polyplot(world, ax=ax)`
1. Finally, we use the pointplot routine to add the positions of the capital cities on top of the world map. We also set the axes limits to make the whole world...