#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# How it works...

The Pint package provides a wrapper class for numerical types that adds unit metadata to the type. This wrapper type implements all the standard arithmetic operations and keeps track of the units throughout these calculations. For example, when we divide a length unit by a time unit, we will get a speed unit. This means that you can use Pint to make sure the units are correct after a complex calculation.

The UnitRegistry object keeps track of all the units that are present in the session and handles things such as conversion between different unit types. It also maintains a reference system of measurements, which in this recipe is the standard international system with meters, kilograms, and seconds as base units, denoted mks.

The wrap functionality allows us to declare the input and output units of a routine, which allows Pint to do automatic unit conversions for the input function – in this recipe, we converted from minutes into seconds...