#### Overview of this book

Python, one of the world's most popular programming languages, has a number of powerful packages to help you tackle complex mathematical problems in a simple and efficient way. These core capabilities help programmers pave the way for building exciting applications in various domains, such as machine learning and data science, using knowledge in the computational mathematics domain. The book teaches you how to solve problems faced in a wide variety of mathematical fields, including calculus, probability, statistics and data science, graph theory, optimization, and geometry. You'll start by developing core skills and learning about packages covered in Python’s scientific stack, including NumPy, SciPy, and Matplotlib. As you advance, you'll get to grips with more advanced topics of calculus, probability, and networks (graph theory). After you gain a solid understanding of these topics, you'll discover Python's applications in data science and statistics, forecasting, geometry, and optimization. The final chapters will take you through a collection of miscellaneous problems, including working with specific data formats and accelerating code. By the end of this book, you'll have an arsenal of practical coding solutions that can be used and modified to solve a wide range of practical problems in computational mathematics and data science.
Preface
Basic Packages, Functions, and Concepts
Free Chapter
Mathematical Plotting with Matplotlib
Working with Randomness and Probability
Geometric Problems
Finding Optimal Solutions
Miscellaneous Topics
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# Triangulating planar figures

As we saw in Chapter 3, Calculus and Differential Equations, we often need to break down a continuous region into smaller, simpler regions. In earlier recipes, we reduced an interval of real numbers into a collection of smaller intervals, each with a small length. This process is usually called discretization. In this chapter, we are working with two-dimensional figures, so we need a two-dimensional version of this process. For this, we'll break a two-dimensional figure (in this recipe, a polygon) into a collection of smaller and simpler polygons. The simplest of all polygons are triangles, so this is a good place to start for two-dimensional discretization. The process of finding a collection of triangles that "tiles" a geometric figure is called triangulation.

In this recipe, we will learn how to triangulate a polygon (with a hole) using the Shapely package.