You can install openFrameworks not only on Ubuntu, but also on Debian and Fedora versions of Linux. See installation guides at http://www.openframeworks.cc/setup/linux-codeblocks/.
Also, you can use Eclipse development environment instead of Code::Blocks. See http://www.openframeworks.cc/setup/linux-eclipse/.
The installation steps are as follows:
Install Code::Blocks. In the main menu in Ubuntu, click on the Dash home icon, search for Ubuntu Software Center, and open it by selecting the Ubuntu Software Center icon. Search for Code Blocks here. The Code::Blocks program should be the first item listed. Click on the Install button and follow the instructions.
Download the openFrameworks archive. Go to http://www.openframeworks.cc/download/ and download openFrameworks for Code::Blocks (Linux), for a 32- or 64-bit operating system. The downloaded ZIP file should be named like
of_v0.8.0_linux64_release.tar. Unzip the downloaded file; it will be a folder containing openFrameworks. Move the folder to any location on your computer.
Now you should install openFrameworks by running some scripts from Terminal. Please refer to http://www.openframeworks.cc/setup/linux-codeblocks/ for detailed instructions.
Follow the steps 4, 5, 6, and 7 from the Code::Blocks (Windows) section for installation steps on running an openFrameworks example.