Book Image

Learning Android Forensics, - Second Edition

By : Donnie Tindall, Rohit Tamma
Book Image

Learning Android Forensics, - Second Edition

By: Donnie Tindall, Rohit Tamma

Overview of this book

Many forensic examiners rely on commercial, push-button tools to retrieve and analyze data, even though there is no tool that does either of these jobs perfectly. Learning Android Forensics will introduce you to the most up-to-date Android platform and its architecture, and provide a high-level overview of what Android forensics entails. You will understand how data is stored on Android devices and how to set up a digital forensic examination environment. As you make your way through the chapters, you will work through various physical and logical techniques to extract data from devices in order to obtain forensic evidence. You will also learn how to recover deleted data and forensically analyze application data with the help of various open source and commercial tools. In the concluding chapters, you will explore malware analysis so that you’ll be able to investigate cybersecurity incidents involving Android malware. By the end of this book, you will have a complete understanding of the Android forensic process, you will have explored open source and commercial forensic tools, and will have basic skills of Android malware identification and analysis.
Table of Contents (12 chapters)

The mobile forensics approach

Once the data is extracted from a device, different methods of analysis are used based on the underlying case. As each investigation is distinct, it is not possible to have a single definitive procedure for all of the cases. However, the overall process can be broken down into five phases, as shown in the following diagram:

The following section discusses each phase in detail.

Investigation preparation

This phase begins when a request for examination is received. It involves preparing all of the paperwork and forms required to document chain of custody, ownership information, device model, purpose, information that the requestor is seeking, and so on. Chain of custody refers to the chronological documentation or paper trail, showing the seizure, custody, control, transfer, analysis, and disposition of physical or electronic evidence. From the details submitted by the requestor, it's important to have a clear understanding of the objective for each examination.

Seizure and isolation

Handling the device during seizure is one of the important steps while performing forensic analysis. The evidence is usually transported using anti-static bags, which are designed to protect electronic components against damage produced by static electricity. As soon as the device is seized, care should be taken to make sure that our actions don't result in any data modification on the device. At the same time, any opportunity that can aid the investigation should also not be missed. The following are some of the points that need to be considered while handling an Android device during this phase:

  • With increasing user awareness of security and privacy, most devices now have screen lock enabled. During the time of seizure, if there is a chance (for instance, the phone is recovered unlocked), disable the passcode. Some of the devices don't ask the user to reenter the passcode while disabling the lock screen option.
  • If the device is unlocked, try to change the settings of the device to allow greater access to the device. The following are some of the settings that can be considered to achieve this:
    • Enable USB debugging: Enabling this option gives greater access to the device through the Android Debug Bridge (ADB) connection. We are going to cover the ADB in detail in Chapter 2, Setting Up the Android Forensic Environment. This will greatly aid the forensic investigator during the data extraction process. In Android devices, this option is usually found under Settings | Developer options, as shown in the following screenshot. On newer Android versions starting from 4.2, developer options are hidden by default. To enable them, navigate to Settings | About Phone (or Settings | System | About Phone on Android 8.0 or higher)and tap on the Build number seven times.
    • Enable the Stay Awake setting: Enabling this option and charging the device will make the device stay awake; in other words, it doesn't get locked. In Android devices, this option is usually found under Settings | Developer options, as shown in the following screenshot:
    • Increase screen timeout: This is the time for which the device will be active once it is unlocked. Depending on the device model, this time can be set up to 30 minutes. In most devices, it can be accessed under Settings | Display | Screen Timeout.

Please note that the location to access these items changes across different versions and models of Android phones and may not be available in all versions.

In mobile forensics, it is of crucial importance to protect the seized device so that our interaction with the evidence (or, for that matter, an attacker's attempt to remotely interact with the device) doesn't change the evidence. In computer forensics, we have software and hardware write blockers that can perform this function. But in mobile forensics, since we need to interact with the device to pull the data, these write blockers are not of any use. Another important aspect is that we also need to prevent the device from interacting with a wireless radio network. As mentioned earlier, there is a high probability that an attacker can issue remote wipe commands to delete all of the data including emails, applications, photos, contacts, and other files on the device.

The Android Device Manager and several other third party apps allow the phone to be remotely wiped or locked. This can be done by signing into the Google account that is configured on the mobile. Using this software, an attacker can also locate the device that could pose a security risk. For all of these reasons, isolating the device from all communication sources is very important.

Have you thought about remote wipe options without using the internet? Mobile Device Management (MDM) software, commonly used by companies to manage corporate devices, can provide remote wipe features just by sending an SMS. Isolating the device from all communication options is crucial.

To isolate the device from a network, we can put the device in Airplane mode if we have access to the device. Airplane mode disables a device's wireless transmission functions such as cellular radio, Wi-Fi, and Bluetooth. However, as Wi-Fi is now available in airplanes, some devices now allow Wi-Fi access in Airplane mode. The following screenshot shows the quick settings available by dragging down the top menu bar from the lock screen:

Note that these toggles are customizable and may not be available on every device; some devices may also require the device to be unlocked to make these changes.

An alternate solution would be to use a Faraday bag or RF isolation box, as both effectively block signals to and from the mobile phone. One concern with these isolation methods is that, once they're employed, it is difficult to work with the phone because you cannot see through it to use the touchscreen or keypad. For this reason, Faraday tents and rooms exist, as shown in the following screenshot:

Even after taking all of these precautions, certain automatic functions such as alarms can still trigger. If such a situation is encountered, it must be properly documented.

The acquisition phase

The acquisition phase refers to extraction of data from the device. Due to the inherent security features of mobile devices, extracting the data is not always straightforward. The extraction method is decided largely depending on the operating system, make, and model. The following are the types of acquisition methods that can be used to extract data from a device:

  • Manual acquisition is the simplest of all of the acquisition methods. The examiner uses the user interface of the phone to browse and investigate. No special tools or techniques are required here, but the limitation is that only the files and data visible through the normal user interface can be extracted. Data extracted through other methods can also be verified using this. It should be noted that this option can very easily modify data on the device (for instance, opening an unread SMS will mark it as read), so these changes should be documented as thoroughly as possible.
  • Logical acquisition, also called logical extraction, generally refers to extracting the files that are present on a logical store such as a file system partition. This involves obtaining data types such as text messages, call history, and pictures from a phone. The logical extraction technique works by using the original equipment manufacturer Applications Programming Interfaces (APIs) for synchronizing the phone's contents with a computer. This technique usually involves extracting the following evidence:
    • Call logs
    • SMS
    • MMS
    • Browser history
    • People
    • Contact methods
    • Contacts extensions
    • Contacts groups
    • Contacts phones
    • Contacts setting
    • External Image Media (metadata)
    • External Image Thumbnail Media (metadata)
    • External Media, Audio, and Misc. (metadata)
    • External Videos (meta data)
    • MMSParts (includes full images sent via MMS)
    • Location details (GPS data)
    • Internet activity
    • Organizations
    • List of all applications installed and their versions
    • Social networking app data such as WhatsApp, Skype, and Facebook
  • File System acquisition is a logical procedure and generally refers to the extraction of a full file system from a mobile device. File system acquisition can sometimes help in recovering the contents (stored in SQLite files) that are deleted from the device.
  • Physical acquisition involves making a bit-for-bit copy of an entire flash storage device, equivalent to a full image of a hard drive. The data extracted using this method is usually in the form of raw data (as a hexadecimal dump) that can then be further parsed to obtain file system information or human-readable data. Since all investigations are performed on this image, this process also ensures that an original evidence is not altered.

Examination and analysis

In this phase, different software tools are used to extract the data from the memory image. In addition to the tools, an investigator may also need the help of a hex editor, as tools do not always extract all of the data. There is no single tool that can be used in all cases. Hence, examination and analysis requires a sound knowledge of various file systems, file headers, and so on.

Reporting

Documentation of the examination should be done throughout the process, noting down what was done in each phase. The following are a few points that might be documented by an examiner:

  • The date and time the examination started
  • The physical condition of the phone
  • The status of the phone when received (ON/OFF)
  • The make, model, and operating system of the phone
  • Pictures of the phone and individual components
  • The tools used during the investigation (including the version number)
  • Data documented during the examination

The data extracted from the mobile device should be clearly presented to the recipient so that it can be imported into other software for further analysis. In the case of civil or criminal cases, wherever possible, pictures of data as it existed on the cellular phone should be collected, as they are visually compelling to a jury.