Book Image

Mastering Kali Linux for Advanced Penetration Testing. - Third Edition

By : Vijay Kumar Velu, Robert Beggs
Book Image

Mastering Kali Linux for Advanced Penetration Testing. - Third Edition

By: Vijay Kumar Velu, Robert Beggs

Overview of this book

This book takes you, as a tester or security practitioner, through the reconnaissance, vulnerability assessment, exploitation, privilege escalation, and post-exploitation activities used by pentesters. To start with, you'll use a laboratory environment to validate tools and techniques, along with an application that supports a collaborative approach for pentesting. You'll then progress to passive reconnaissance with open source intelligence and active reconnaissance of the external and internal infrastructure. You'll also focus on how to select, use, customize, and interpret the results from different vulnerability scanners, followed by examining specific routes to the target, which include bypassing physical security and the exfiltration of data using a variety of techniques. You'll discover concepts such as social engineering, attacking wireless networks, web services, and embedded devices. Once you are confident with these topics, you'll learn the practical aspects of attacking user client systems by backdooring with fileless techniques, followed by focusing on the most vulnerable part of the network – directly attacking the end user. By the end of this book, you'll have explored approaches for carrying out advanced pentesting in tightly secured environments, understood pentesting and hacking techniques employed on embedded peripheral devices.
Table of Contents (21 chapters)
Title Page
Dedication
About Packt
Contributors
Preface
Index

Compromising Kerberos – the golden-ticket attack


Another set of more sophisticated (and more recent) attacks is the abuse of Microsoft Kerberos vulnerabilities in an Active Directory environment. A successful attack leads to attackers compromising domain controllers and then escalating the privilege to the enterprise admin-and schema admin-level using the Kerberos implementation.

The following are typical steps when a user logs on with a username and password in a Kerberos-based environment:

  1. User's password is converted into an NTLM hash with a timestamp and then it is sent over to the Key Distribution Center (KDC).
  2. Domain controller checks the user information and creates a (Ticket-Granting Ticket (TGT).
  3. This TGT can be accessed only by Kerberos service (KRBTGT).
  4. The TGT is then passed on to the domain controller from the user to request a Ticket Granting Service (TGS) ticket.
  5. Domain controller validates the Privileged Account Certificate (PAC). If it is allowed to open the ticket, then the TGT...