Book Image

Reconnaissance for Ethical Hackers

By : Glen D. Singh
5 (1)
Book Image

Reconnaissance for Ethical Hackers

5 (1)
By: Glen D. Singh

Overview of this book

This book explores reconnaissance techniques – the first step in discovering security vulnerabilities and exposed network infrastructure. It aids ethical hackers in understanding adversaries’ methods of identifying and mapping attack surfaces, such as network entry points, which enables them to exploit the target and steal confidential information. Reconnaissance for Ethical Hackers helps you get a comprehensive understanding of how threat actors are able to successfully leverage the information collected during the reconnaissance phase to scan and enumerate the network, collect information, and pose various security threats. This book helps you stay one step ahead in knowing how adversaries use tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) to successfully gain information about their targets, while you develop a solid foundation on information gathering strategies as a cybersecurity professional. The concluding chapters will assist you in developing the skills and techniques used by real adversaries to identify vulnerable points of entry into an organization and mitigate reconnaissance-based attacks. By the end of this book, you’ll have gained a solid understanding of reconnaissance, as well as learned how to secure yourself and your organization without causing significant disruption.
Table of Contents (15 chapters)
1
Part 1: Reconnaissance and Footprinting
8
Part 2: Scanning and Enumeration

Sub-domain enumeration

Threat actors such as hackers use both passive and active reconnaissance techniques to identify the sub-domains of a target. Usually, an organization will register a domain name (parent domain) and create additional sub-domains, where each sub-domain points to a different server that’s owned by the target. For instance, domain.local points to the IP address of the web server and mail.domain.local points to the IP address of the email server. Therefore, enumerating the sub-domains and resolving their IP addresses helps attackers to identify security vulnerabilities and the attack surface of additional systems owned by the target.

Sometimes, a sub-domain is used to host a test environment for users that are misconfigured, running a vulnerable or less secure application, and connected to the internal corporate network. If an attacker were to compromise this system, they would be able to pivot their attacks through the compromised system to the internal...